• Before reporting problems with your board running Armbian, check the following:

    • 1. Check power supply, check SD card and check other people experiences   06/23/17

      Power supply issues are one of the three biggest issues you'll face when starting with Single Board Computers (SBCs). SD card issues, whether fake or faulty, are another and issues resulting from poor board design is the other common issues you can encounter.   Power supply issues can be tricky. You might have a noisy power supply that works with one board because it has extra filtering, but won't work with another. Or you're using that cheap phone charger because your board has a microUSB connector, and it is either erratic, or doesn't start up, or even becomes the cause of some SD card issues.    Some tips to avoid the most common causes of problems reported:   Don't power via micro USB  - unless you have optimised your setup for low power requirements. Micro USB is great for mobile phones because they are simply charging a battery. It's bad for SBCs. Yes, it does work for a lot of people, but it also causes more problems and headaches over time than it is worth, unless you know exactly what you are doing. If you have a barrel jack power connector on your SBC, use it instead! If there is an option for powering via header connections, use that option!
        Don't use mobile phone chargers. They might be convenient and cheap, but this is because they are meant for charging phones, not powering your SBC which has particular power requirements.
        When you are evaluating a power supply, make sure you run some stress tests on your system to ensure that it will not cause issues down the path.   (Micro) SD card issues can be sneaky. They might appear right at the start causing strange boot and login errors, or they might cause problems over time. It is best to run a test on any new SD card you use, to ensure that it really is what it is, and to ensure that isn't faulty. Armbian provides you a simple way to do this   --   armbianmonitor -c /path/to/device/to/test  
    • 2. Make sure to collect and provide all necessary information   06/24/17

      We can only help if you provide quality information for us to work with. All stable images from the download section are tested, most stable upgrades are tested and we have tens of thousands of users. Even with regular and extensive testings, bugs sometimes do slip through. This is a voluntary support service and is unrelated to board makers, and is not obligated to provide you any answers. Repeated asking the same questions because you're not happy with the answers will result in you being ignored.

      Before you post a question, use the forum search as someone else might have already had the same problem and resolved it. And make sure you've read the Armbian documentation. If you still haven't found an answer, make sure you include the following in your post:   1. Logs when you can boot the board: armbianmonitor -u (paste URL to your forum post)   2. If your board does not boot, provide a log from serial console or at least make a picture, where it stops.   3. Describe the problem the best you can and provide all necessary info that we can reproduce the problem. We are not clairvoyant or mind readers. Please describe your setup as best as possible so we know what your operating environment is like.     We will not help in cases you are not using stable official Armbian builds, you have a problem with 3rd party hardware or reported problem would not be able to reproduced.

how to set up swap partition
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Hi,

Beside some limitations with cubox's hardware I love my cubox-i 4x4. But it is hard to find good documentation about how to many things.

Reading this forum and other webs I made many of my goals.

After installing Debian from this web site and using the nand-sata-install script the system works from the hard drive. This hard drive has two partitions, the main and big one and one small, 4GB, swap partition, but the system is not using it, so I would like to know if I can make the system use it.

I found this how to:

 

9. Setting Up Swap Space

9.1. Swap Files

Normally, there are only two steps to setting up swap space, creating the partition and adding it to /etc/fstab. A typical fstab entry for a swap partition at /dev/hda6 would look like this:

 

/dev/hda6 swap swap defaults 0 0

 

The next time you reboot, the initialization scripts will activate it automatically and there's nothing more to be done.

 

However, if you want to make use of it right away, you'll need to activate it maually. As root, type:

 

mkswap -f /dev/hda6

swapon /dev/hda6

 

9.2. Swap Files

 

There might be times when you've run out of swap space and it is not practical to repartition a drive or add a new one. In this case, you can use a regular file in an ordinary partition. All you have to do is create a file of the size you want

 

dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/my_swap bs=1024 count=131072

 

and activate it

 

mkswap -f /var/my_swap

swapon /var/my_swap

 

This invocation creates a file called my_swap in /var. It is 128 Mb long (128 x 1024 = 131072). Initially, it is filled with zeros. However, mkswap marks it as swap space and swapon tells the kernel to start using it as swap space. When you are done with it,

 

swapoff /var/my_swap

rm /var/my_swap

 

 

is it fine and how do I make it for my 4GB partition?

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Yes, this how-to is O.K.

 

There is also one main fine tuning parameter to mention - called swappiness (/etc/sysctl.conf)

 

Our images has only 128Mb swap for "just in case" since vm.swappiness=0 ... "it's not used unless really urgent". We run system from SD by default and you really don't want to swap to SD card.

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Hi,

 

After follow the how-to system doesn't start normally. 

I get this log:

 

(I copy only half log... from errors mostly)
.
.
.
ene 01 01:00:04 cubox-i systemd-fstab-generator[134]: Failed to create mount unit file /run/systemd/generator/boot.mount, as it already exists. Duplicate entry in /etc/fstab?
ene 01 01:00:04 cubox-i systemd[127]: /lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-fstab-generator failed with error code 1.
ene 01 01:00:04 cubox-i kernel: bonding: Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver: v3.7.1 (April 27, 2011)
ene 01 01:00:04 cubox-i systemd-journal[157]: Journal started
-- Subject: The Journal has been started
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- 
-- The system journal process has been starting up, opened the journal
-- files for writing and is now ready to process requests.
ene 01 01:00:04 cubox-i systemd-modules-load[146]: Module 'fuse' is builtin
ene 01 01:00:04 cubox-i systemd-modules-load[146]: Inserted module 'bonding'
ene 01 01:00:04 cubox-i systemd-udevd[168]: starting version 215
ene 01 01:00:04 cubox-i hdparm[171]: Setting parameters of disc: (none).
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: IR keymap rc-rc6-mce not found
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: Registered IR keymap rc-empty
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: input: gpio_ir_recv as /devices/soc0/ir-receiver.23/rc/rc0/input2
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: rc0: gpio_ir_recv as /devices/soc0/ir-receiver.23/rc/rc0
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: IR NEC protocol handler initialized
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: IR SANYO protocol handler initialized
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: input: MCE IR Keyboard/Mouse (gpio-rc-recv) as /devices/virtual/input/input3
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: IR MCE Keyboard/mouse protocol handler initialized
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: IR RC6 protocol handler initialized
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: IR RC5(x) protocol handler initialized
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: lirc_dev: IR Remote Control driver registered, major 241 
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: IR JVC protocol handler initialized
ene 01 01:00:05 cubox-i kernel: IR Sony protocol handler initialized
ene 01 01:00:06 cubox-i kernel: rc rc0: lirc_dev: driver ir-lirc-codec (gpio-rc-recv) registered at minor = 0
ene 01 01:00:06 cubox-i kernel: IR LIRC bridge handler initialized
ene 01 01:00:06 cubox-i kernel: cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain
ene 01 01:00:06 cubox-i kernel: brcmfmac: brcmf_c_preinit_dcmds: Firmware version = wl0: Oct 25 2011 19:34:12 version 5.90.125.104
ene 01 01:00:06 cubox-i mtp-probe[252]: checking bus 2, device 4: "/sys/devices/soc0/soc.1/2100000.aips-bus/2184200.usb/ci_hdrc.1/usb2/2-1/2-1.4/2-1.4.2"
ene 01 01:00:06 cubox-i mtp-probe[252]: bus: 2, device: 4 was not an MTP device
ene 01 01:00:07 cubox-i kernel: cfg80211: World regulatory domain updated:
ene 01 01:00:07 cubox-i kernel: cfg80211:  DFS Master region: unset
ene 01 01:00:07 cubox-i kernel: cfg80211:   (start_freq - end_freq @ bandwidth), (max_antenna_gain, max_eirp)
ene 01 01:00:07 cubox-i kernel: cfg80211:   (2402000 KHz - 2472000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm)
ene 01 01:00:07 cubox-i kernel: cfg80211:   (2457000 KHz - 2482000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm)
ene 01 01:00:07 cubox-i kernel: cfg80211:   (2474000 KHz - 2494000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm)
ene 01 01:00:07 cubox-i kernel: cfg80211:   (5170000 KHz - 5250000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm)
ene 01 01:00:07 cubox-i kernel: cfg80211:   (5250000 KHz - 5330000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm)
ene 01 01:00:07 cubox-i kernel: cfg80211:   (5490000 KHz - 5730000 KHz @ 160000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm)
ene 01 01:00:07 cubox-i kernel: cfg80211:   (5735000 KHz - 5835000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm)
ene 01 01:00:07 cubox-i kernel: cfg80211:   (57240000 KHz - 63720000 KHz @ 2160000 KHz), (N/A, 0 mBm)
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i keyboard-setup[170]: Setting preliminary keymap...done.
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i kernel: EXT4-fs (sda1): re-mounted. Opts: commit=600,errors=remount-ro
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i systemd[1]: media-mmc.mount: Directory /media/mmc to mount over is not empty, mounting anyway.
-- Subject: Mount point is not empty
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- 
-- The directory /media/mmc is specified as the mount point (second field in
-- /etc/fstab or Where= field in systemd unit file) and is not empty.
-- This does not interfere with mounting, but the pre-exisiting files in
-- this directory become inaccessible. To see those over-mounted files,
-- please manually mount the underlying file system to a secondary
-- location.
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i systemd[1]: tmp.mount: Directory /tmp to mount over is not empty, mounting anyway.
-- Subject: Mount point is not empty
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- 
-- The directory /tmp is specified as the mount point (second field in
-- /etc/fstab or Where= field in systemd unit file) and is not empty.
-- This does not interfere with mounting, but the pre-exisiting files in
-- this directory become inaccessible. To see those over-mounted files,
-- please manually mount the underlying file system to a secondary
-- location.
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i kernel: EXT4-fs (mmcblk0p1): recovery complete
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i kernel: EXT4-fs (mmcblk0p1): mounted filesystem with writeback data mode. Opts: (null)
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i kernel: Adding 131068k swap on /var/swap.  Priority:-1 extents:3 across:212988k FS
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: ntfs_mst_post_read_fixup_warn: magic: 0x00000000  size: 1024   usa_ofs: 0  usa_count: 65535: Invalid argument
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: ntfs_mst_post_read_fixup_warn: magic: 0x00000000  size: 1024   usa_ofs: 0  usa_count: 65535: Invalid argument
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: ntfs_mst_post_read_fixup_warn: magic: 0x00000000  size: 1024   usa_ofs: 0  usa_count: 65535: Invalid argument
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: ntfs_mst_post_read_fixup_warn: magic: 0x00000000  size: 1024   usa_ofs: 0  usa_count: 65535: Invalid argument
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: $MFTMirr does not match $MFT (record 0).
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: Failed to mount '/dev/sda': Input/output error
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: NTFS is either inconsistent, or there is a hardware fault, or it's a
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: SoftRAID/FakeRAID hardware. In the first case run chkdsk /f on Windows
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: then reboot into Windows twice. The usage of the /f parameter is very
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: important! If the device is a SoftRAID/FakeRAID then first activate
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: it and mount a different device under the /dev/mapper/ directory, (e.g.
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: /dev/mapper/nvidia_eahaabcc1). Please see the 'dmraid' documentation
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i mount[349]: for more details.
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i systemd[1]: media-500.mount mount process exited, code=exited status=13
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i systemd[1]: Failed to mount /media/500.
-- Subject: Unit media-500.mount has failed
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- 
-- Unit media-500.mount has failed.
-- 
-- The result is failed.
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i systemd[1]: Dependency failed for Local File Systems.
-- Subject: Unit local-fs.target has failed
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- 
-- Unit local-fs.target has failed.
-- 
-- The result is dependency.
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i systemd[1]: Unit media-500.mount entered failed state.
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i systemd-journal[157]: Runtime journal is using 8.0M (max allowed 189.4M, trying to leave 284.2M free of 1.8G available → current limit 189.4M).
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i kbd[368]: Setting console screen modes.
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i kbd[368]: setterm: $TERM is not defined.
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i dhclient[474]: Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client 4.3.1
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i dhclient[474]: Copyright 2004-2014 Internet Systems Consortium.
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i dhclient[474]: All rights reserved.
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i dhclient[474]: For info, please visit https://www.isc.org/software/dhcp/
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i dhclient[474]: 
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i networking[370]: Configuring network interfaces...Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client 4.3.1
ene 01 01:00:13 cubox-i networking[370]: Copyright 2004-2014 Internet Systems Consortium.
ene 01 01:00:14 cubox-i networking[370]: All rights reserved.
ene 01 01:00:14 cubox-i networking[370]: For info, please visit https://www.isc.org/software/dhcp/
ene 01 01:00:14 cubox-i kernel: fec 2188000.ethernet eth0: Freescale FEC PHY driver [Atheros 8035 ethernet] (mii_bus:phy_addr=2188000.ethernet:04, irq=-1)
ene 01 01:00:14 cubox-i kernel: IPv6: ADDRCONF(NETDEV_UP): eth0: link is not ready
ene 01 01:00:14 cubox-i dhclient[474]: Listening on LPF/eth0/d0:63:b4:00:82:93
ene 01 01:00:14 cubox-i dhclient[474]: Sending on   LPF/eth0/d0:63:b4:00:82:93
ene 01 01:00:14 cubox-i dhclient[474]: Sending on   Socket/fallback
ene 01 01:00:14 cubox-i dhclient[474]: DHCPREQUEST on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
ene 01 01:00:14 cubox-i networking[370]: Listening on LPF/eth0/d0:63:b4:00:82:93
ene 01 01:00:14 cubox-i networking[370]: Sending on   LPF/eth0/d0:63:b4:00:82:93
ene 01 01:00:14 cubox-i networking[370]: Sending on   Socket/fallback
ene 01 01:00:14 cubox-i networking[370]: DHCPREQUEST on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
ene 01 01:00:18 cubox-i kernel: libphy: 2188000.ethernet:04 - Link is Up - 1000/Full
ene 01 01:00:18 cubox-i kernel: IPv6: ADDRCONF(NETDEV_CHANGE): eth0: link becomes ready
ene 01 01:00:18 cubox-i systemd[371]: Failed at step EXEC spawning /bin/plymouth: No such file or directory
-- Subject: Process /bin/plymouth could not be executed
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- 
-- The process /bin/plymouth could not be executed and failed.
-- 
-- The error number returned while executing this process is 2.
ene 01 01:00:21 cubox-i dhclient[474]: DHCPREQUEST on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
ene 01 01:00:21 cubox-i networking[370]: DHCPREQUEST on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
ene 01 01:00:21 cubox-i dhclient[474]: DHCPACK from 192.168.1.1
ene 01 01:00:21 cubox-i networking[370]: DHCPACK from 192.168.1.1
ene 01 01:00:21 cubox-i console-setup[417]: Setting up console font and keymap...done.
ene 01 01:09:38 cubox-i kernel: In DVI Mode disable interrupts
ene 01 01:09:42 cubox-i x-session-manager[635]: WARNING: Could not connect to Systemd: Failed to connect to socket /var/run/dbus/system_bus_socket: No such file or directory
ene 01 01:09:42 cubox-i x-session-manager[635]: WARNING: Could not connect to Systemd: Failed to connect to socket /var/run/dbus/system_bus_socket: No such file or directory
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i gnome-keyring-daemon[665]: The SSH agent was already initialized
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i gnome-keyring-daemon[665]: The PKCS#11 component was already initialized
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i gnome-keyring-daemon[665]: The Secret Service was already initialized
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GLib-GObject-WARNING **: invalid (NULL) pointer instance
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GLib-GObject-CRITICAL **: g_signal_handlers_disconnect_matched: assertion 'G_TYPE_CHECK_INSTANCE (instance)' failed
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GLib-GObject-WARNING **: invalid (NULL) pointer instance
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GLib-GObject-CRITICAL **: g_signal_handlers_disconnect_matched: assertion 'G_TYPE_CHECK_INSTANCE (instance)' failed
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GLib-GObject-WARNING **: invalid (NULL) pointer instance
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GLib-GObject-CRITICAL **: g_signal_handlers_disconnect_matched: assertion 'G_TYPE_CHECK_INSTANCE (instance)' failed
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GLib-GObject-WARNING **: invalid (NULL) pointer instance
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GLib-GObject-CRITICAL **: g_signal_handlers_disconnect_matched: assertion 'G_TYPE_CHECK_INSTANCE (instance)' failed
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GLib-GObject-WARNING **: invalid (NULL) pointer instance
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GLib-GObject-CRITICAL **: g_signal_handlers_disconnect_matched: assertion 'G_TYPE_CHECK_INSTANCE (instance)' failed
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GLib-GObject-CRITICAL **: g_object_unref: assertion 'G_IS_OBJECT (object)' failed
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GVFS-RemoteVolumeMonitorDaemon-WARNING **: monitor says it's not supported
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GVFS-RemoteVolumeMonitorDaemon-WARNING **: monitor says it's not supported
ene 01 01:09:46 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.AfcVolumeMonitor[657]: Volume monitor alive
ene 01 01:09:47 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GVFS-RemoteVolumeMonitorDaemon-WARNING **: monitor says it's not supported
ene 01 01:09:48 cubox-i gnome-keyring-daemon[665]: The GPG agent was already initialized
ene 01 01:09:50 cubox-i org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[657]: (process:704): GVFS-RemoteVolumeMonitorDaemon-WARNING **: monitor says it's not supported
ene 01 01:09:51 cubox-i org.a11y.Bus[657]: Activating service name='org.a11y.atspi.Registry'
ene 01 01:09:52 cubox-i org.a11y.Bus[657]: Successfully activated service 'org.a11y.atspi.Registry'
ene 01 01:09:52 cubox-i org.a11y.atspi.Registry[778]: SpiRegistry daemon is running with well-known name - org.a11y.atspi.Registry
ene 01 01:09:53 cubox-i x-session-manager[635]: WARNING: Could not connect to Systemd: Failed to connect to socket /var/run/dbus/system_bus_socket: No such file or directory
ene 01 01:09:53 cubox-i x-session-manager[635]: WARNING: Could not connect to Systemd: Failed to connect to socket /var/run/dbus/system_bus_socket: No such file or directory
ene 01 01:09:54 cubox-i org.mate.panel.applet.ClockAppletFactory[657]: ** (clock-applet:747): WARNING **: Couldn't connect to system bus: Failed to connect to socket /var/run/dbus/system_bus_socket: No such file or directory
ene 01 01:14:39 cubox-i x-session-manager[635]: WARNING: Could not connect to Systemd: Failed to connect to socket /var/run/dbus/system_bus_socket: No such file or directory
ene 01 01:16:42 cubox-i kernel: usb 2-1.2: new high-speed USB device number 5 using ci_hdrc
ene 01 01:16:42 cubox-i kernel: usb 2-1.2: New USB device found, idVendor=0951, idProduct=1666
ene 01 01:16:42 cubox-i kernel: usb 2-1.2: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
ene 01 01:16:42 cubox-i kernel: usb 2-1.2: Product: DataTraveler 3.0
ene 01 01:16:42 cubox-i kernel: usb 2-1.2: Manufacturer: Kingston
ene 01 01:16:42 cubox-i kernel: usb 2-1.2: SerialNumber: 60A44C3FAFE1BEB0D96D02CF
ene 01 01:16:42 cubox-i kernel: usb-storage 2-1.2:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
ene 01 01:16:42 cubox-i kernel: scsi1 : usb-storage 2-1.2:1.0
ene 01 01:16:42 cubox-i mtp-probe[795]: checking bus 2, device 5: "/sys/devices/soc0/soc.1/2100000.aips-bus/2184200.usb/ci_hdrc.1/usb2/2-1/2-1.2"
ene 01 01:16:42 cubox-i mtp-probe[795]: bus: 2, device: 5 was not an MTP device
ene 01 01:16:43 cubox-i kernel: scsi 1:0:0:0: Direct-Access     Kingston DataTraveler 3.0 PMAP PQ: 0 ANSI: 6
ene 01 01:16:43 cubox-i kernel: sd 1:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg1 type 0
ene 01 01:16:44 cubox-i kernel: sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] 15155200 512-byte logical blocks: (7.75 GB/7.22 GiB)
ene 01 01:16:44 cubox-i kernel: sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
ene 01 01:16:44 cubox-i kernel: sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Mode Sense: 23 00 00 00
ene 01 01:16:44 cubox-i kernel: sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] No Caching mode page found
ene 01 01:16:44 cubox-i kernel: sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Assuming drive cache: write through
ene 01 01:16:44 cubox-i kernel: sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] No Caching mode page found
ene 01 01:16:44 cubox-i kernel: sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Assuming drive cache: write through
ene 01 01:16:44 cubox-i kernel:  sdb: sdb1
ene 01 01:16:44 cubox-i kernel: sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] No Caching mode page found
ene 01 01:16:44 cubox-i kernel: sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Assuming drive cache: write through
ene 01 01:16:44 cubox-i kernel: sd 1:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI removable disk
ene 01 01:16:46 cubox-i x-session-manager[635]: WARNING: Could not connect to Systemd: Failed to connect to socket /var/run/dbus/system_bus_socket: No such file or directory
ene 01 01:17:05 cubox-i kernel: usb 2-1.1: new low-speed USB device number 6 using ci_hdrc
ene 01 01:17:05 cubox-i kernel: usb 2-1.1: New USB device found, idVendor=15d9, idProduct=0a4c
ene 01 01:17:05 cubox-i kernel: usb 2-1.1: New USB device strings: Mfr=0, Product=1, SerialNumber=0
ene 01 01:17:05 cubox-i kernel: usb 2-1.1: Product:  USB OPTICAL MOUSE
ene 01 01:17:05 cubox-i kernel: input:  USB OPTICAL MOUSE as /devices/soc0/soc.1/2100000.aips-bus/2184200.usb/ci_hdrc.1/usb2/2-1/2-1.1/2-1.1:1.0/0003:15D9:0A4C.0003/input/input4
ene 01 01:17:05 cubox-i kernel: hid-generic 0003:15D9:0A4C.0003: input,hidraw2: USB HID v1.11 Mouse [ USB OPTICAL MOUSE] on usb-ci_hdrc.1-1.1/input0
ene 01 01:17:05 cubox-i mtp-probe[823]: checking bus 2, device 6: "/sys/devices/soc0/soc.1/2100000.aips-bus/2184200.usb/ci_hdrc.1/usb2/2-1/2-1.1"
ene 01 01:17:05 cubox-i mtp-probe[823]: bus: 2, device: 6 was not an MTP device
 
 
And just waits for root loging.... I deleted the line "/dev/sda2 swap swap defaults 0 0" from /etc/fstab but same result.... 

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this is the message:

 

  UNIT            LOAD   ACTIVE SUB    DESCRIPTION
* media-500.mount loaded failed failed /media/500
 
LOAD   = Reflects whether the unit definition was properly loaded.
ACTIVE = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB.
SUB    = The low-level unit activation state, values depend on unit type.
 
1 loaded units listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive units, too.
To show all installed unit files use 'systemctl list-unit-files'.

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ok... this is the content:

 

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
 
tmpfs /tmp tmpfs nodev,nosuid,size=256M 0 0
/dev/sda1 / ext4 defaults,noatime,nodiratime,commit=600,errors=remount-ro 0 0
/dev/mmcblk0p1 /boot ext4 defaults,relatime 0 0
/dev/mmcblk0p1 /media/mmc ext4 defaults 0 0
/dev/sda /media/500 ntfs-3g defaults,locale=es_ES@euro 0 0
/var/swap none swap sw 0 0
/media/mmc/boot /boot none bind 0 0
/dev/disk/by-id/usb-WD_Elements_1042_57584E314533324D59595856-0:0 /mnt/usb-WD_Elements_1042_57584E314533324D59595856-0:0 auto nosuid,nodev,nofail,noauto,x-gvfs-show,ro 0 0

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Ok, so this is what a I think a serie of mistakes were made....

first partition had at the moment of instalation the label "500", I think... but before to start to make changes in the system I edited it and changed it to "/"... 

sda1 is the first partition and sda2 the second one, the Swap.

 

I got this output:

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
 
tmpfs /tmp tmpfs nodev,nosuid,size=256M 0 0
/dev/sda1 / ext4 defaults,noatime,nodiratime,commit=600,errors=remount-ro 0 0
/dev/mmcblk0p1 /boot ext4 defaults,relatime 0 0
/dev/mmcblk0p1 /media/mmc ext4 defaults 0 0
/dev/sda /media/500 ntfs-3g defaults,locale=es_ES@euro 0 0
/var/swap none swap sw 0 0
/media/mmc/boot /boot none bind 0 0
/dev/disk/by-id/usb-WD_Elements_1042_57584E314533324D59595856-0:0 /mnt/usb-WD_Elements_1042_57584E314533324D59595856-0:0 auto nosuid,nodev,nofail,noauto,x-gvfs-show,ro 0 0
 
but same error loading the system... 
 
root@cubox-i:~# systemctl status media-500.mount
* media-500.mount - /media/500
   Loaded: loaded (/etc/fstab)
   Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since jue 1970-01-01 01:00:12 CET; 6min ago
    Where: /media/500
     What: /dev/sda1
     Docs: man:fstab(5)
           man:systemd-fstab-generator(8)
  Process: 375 ExecMount=/bin/mount -n /dev/sda1 /media/500 -t ntfs-3g -o defaults,locale=es_ES@euro (code=exited, status=12)
 
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i mount[375]: NTFS signature is missing.
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i mount[375]: Failed to mount '/dev/sda1': Invalid ar...nt
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i mount[375]: The device '/dev/sda1' doesn't seem to ...S.
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i mount[375]: Maybe the wrong device is used? Or the ... a
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i mount[375]: partition (e.g. /dev/sda, not /dev/sda1...d?
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i systemd[1]: media-500.mount mount process exited, c...12
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i systemd[1]: Failed to mount /media/500.
ene 01 01:00:12 cubox-i systemd[1]: Unit media-500.mount entered failed state.
Hint: Some lines were ellipsized, use -l to show in full.

 

and changing "/dev/sda /media/500 ntfs-3g defaults,locale=es_ES@euro 0 0" to "/dev/sda1 /media/500 ntfs-3g defaults,locale=es_ES@euro 0 0" and the label of the first partition to "500" just made it worse.... 

 

:'(

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old topic only this part is what i found...

 

I run armbian [ latest ] on my Cb2 

i need some memory so i think when i make swap i have more?

My sd is 64gb  so i hope i can use some from that.

 

When i use Htop is see there is a swap:

ScreenShot132.thumb.png.ad008d654ece6b89b07de5d780e160eb.png

 

Only i am a noob, so i do not now or the swap is active?

How can i enlarge the swap

And are there more settings i need to set?

 

 

Hope you will help me...

 

Thanks

 

ps:

Is it not strange that there are serval minecraft things running?

ScreenShot133.thumb.png.8e95b66b48883f312dba45841668cb4e.png

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Easier way to see the swap size is the "free" command. To locate de swap file, check it path in "fstab"

Turn off the current swap with "swapoff /var/swap".

Overwrite existing one by creating a larger one on the same path with "dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/swap bs=1024 count=524288".

Turn the new file into a swap file with "mkswap /var/swap" and turn it on with "swapon /var/swap".

 

 

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On 27-8-2017 at 2:25 PM, martinayotte said:

Easier way to see the swap size is the "free" command. To locate de swap file, check it path in "fstab"

Turn off the current swap with "swapoff /var/swap".

Overwrite existing one by creating a larger one on the same path with "dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/swap bs=1024 count=524288".

Turn the new file into a swap file with "mkswap /var/swap" and turn it on with "swapon /var/swap".

 

 

Dear...

Thanks for the help...

 

Only i am a noob.....

 

Please can you tell me how to in simple steps...

And the most important..

Can i brick or do something wrong??

 

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mmm is this ok?

root@bananapim2:~# free -h
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:          1.0G       933M        67M        17M        16M       195M
-/+ buffers/cache:       721M       279M
Swap:         127M         0B       127M
root@bananapim2:~# swapoff /var/swap
root@bananapim2:~# dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/swap bs=1024 count=524288
524288+0 records in
524288+0 records out
536870912 bytes (537 MB) copied, 44.0321 s, 12.2 MB/s
root@bananapim2:~# mkswap /var/swap
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 524284 KiB
no label, UUID=fe0acba4-4629-4ff7-ac92-0f430d9cf57a
root@bananapim2:~# swapon /var/swap
root@bananapim2:~# free -h
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:          1.0G       987M        13M        17M        12M       249M
-/+ buffers/cache:       725M       275M
Swap:         511M         0B       511M
root@bananapim2:~#

 

 

Looks ok by my....

 

Only what did i ?

And what are the better specs @ this moment looking @ the config before???

Do i  have more RAM? Or what is the swapfile doing???

:-)

 

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11 hours ago, Dombo 71 said:

Or what is the swapfile doing?


It's doing nothing and this is good thing :) Swapping at Armbian is set to "emergency only" which means it will use swap file only there will be no other options. Swap only prevent strange things to happen - it's your virtual memory extension which is damn slow. If you need more memory, get a board with more of it.

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5 minutes ago, Dombo 71 said:

When i see it is in use, the Bpi have problems?

 

This means two things: there is something wrong or you are just trying to squeeze too much out of the poor board. Don't worry. :P

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12 hours ago, Dombo 71 said:

mmm is this ok?

 

No, this is wrong in many ways (due to 'tutorials/recommendations on the Internet' being copy&paste of horribly outdated stuff again and again).

  1. You're not running out of physical memory (0 bytes swap used out of 128MB before and now 512MB) so why do you care at all?
  2. Use fallocate and not dd to create a swapfile
  3. Use zram instead of swap (it's 2017 and swap on SD cards is insane anyway)

 

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mmm guys you make me crazy on a nice way:-)

Good not good...

 

My bpi runs a minecraft server for my kids...

Works very fine....

Only i now the bpi dos not have a lot of memory...

My SD cart is 64gb so there is more then i need...

So i read something about a swap file.

I think great when the server is running to the max memory is can get some from the sd with a swapfile...

And so i can run the server on a perhaps to light board... and the swap help me when there are temperaly problems with the memory....

 

So i this correct?

 

 

Now you guys are all pro's..

 

I am house builder [ bricklayer ] , that wil get my kids happy with a great toy, what other kids do not have,..[ their own server ]

Hobby, and i learn something about linux...

I am from the sixties, so no pc expert 2 all... :-)  i can run a windows pc...  :-(

 

 

I am very happy with all your support..

Only i hope you will give me some more then only a link to a script ..

That script i cannot read? Or i do not now what i can do with it..

 

I am very happy that i make the swap memory  greater,..... [ i think ]

Now i hope the bpi is going to use it...

 

 

So please... some simple help step by step..

 

Thanks, form my 4  kids 

xxxx

 

 

 

 

 

 

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1 hour ago, Dombo 71 said:

So i read something about a swap file.

 

And that's the mistake. Simply FORGET about swap. It doesn't increase your useable memory and as soon as your board would start to swap it's already over since performance will suck so horribly that it's time to think about a board with more DRAM.

 

Do you need more DRAM? NO according to 'free' output above. You RAM is mostly used for buffers/caches which would be freed immediately once really needed by the kernel or an application. You do NOT have to worry about swap, swap doesn't help with 'increasing memory' and 'more memory' is also useless for your use case. So simply stop thinking about swap (and if you would need swap since you're running out of physical memory increasing a swap file/partition is close to stupid since swapping on SD card is slow as hell -- use zram instead IF it would be necessary which is it NOT).

 

The only reasonable answer we as Armbian team should give to people asking about 'increasing swap?' is 'forget about, it's useless!'. And if users are running out of physical memory the only reasonable recommendations are 1) try zram and 2) try a board with more physical memory.

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1 hour ago, Dombo 71 said:

Sorry for your time

 

No time wasted! :)

 

I thought today a little bit about why Armbian ships with such an anachronistic default configuration and whether it would be worth a try with more recent kernels to switch from swap to zram (and adjust vm swappiness since with vm.swappiness=0 most probably no one will ever see a difference).

 

An interesting test would be

sed -i 's/vm.swappiness=0/vm.swappiness=60/' /etc/sysctl.conf
FILE=$(mktemp)
wget https://mirrors.kernel.org/ubuntu/pool/universe/z/zram-config/zram-config_0.5_all.deb -qO $FILE && dpkg -i $FILE
reboot

But I've to admit that I don't know how to test whether something changes since I know swapping only as problem of the past. I've now 3 ROCK64 with different DRAM sizes. Maybe someone has an idea how a useful 'benchmark' could look like comparing different DRAM sizes?

 

 

manuti and RagnerBG like this

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