Look into mmc-utils. This is the tool you want to use to interact with SD/MMC/eMMC devices. SD cards do not use SMART, you might have to dig a bit further to find out how to check their health status.
I found a doc from Micron that might be helpful: https://media-www.micron.com/-/media/client/global/documents/products/technical-note/sd-cards/tnsd02_enable_sd_health_monitor_system.pdf?rev=1fee627f3c974c139b3533bdd47a635f
Additionally, you must use a native mmc interface to interact with your card, such as MicroSD card slots that are directly attached to the SoC, a PCIe based card reader in your laptop, or a Realtek USB card reader that uses the "rtsx_usb" driver. The normal SCSI based card readers will not work.