I put the image on an SD card, but the machine fails to boot. Looking at the serial console, it just sits in a loop with the CPU constantly resetting after an exception. Serial console log is attached.
Well, there are a lot of differences between the files, but most of them seem minor (different phandle values, for example). I wouldn't know how to look for significant differences in the dtbs, so I have to leave this with the Armbian devs. Thanks to all who helped with suggestions.