I think we're going to have to agree to disagree here - and frank discussion is always good...   What you have to look at is the tendency to swap, and what that cost actually is - one can end up unmapping pages if not careful, and have a less responsive system - spinning rust, compcache, nvme, etc... swap is still swap.   swap_tendency = mapped_ratio/2 + distress + vm_swappiness   (for the lay folks - the 0-100 value in vm.swappiness is akin to the amount free memor