MMGen

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Everything posted by MMGen

  1. Thanks for the offer/request. I'll be busy for the next several days, but when I get some free time I'll look into doing this.
  2. Glad everything worked! However, the bind mount wasn't necessary. Since you're still booting from the SD/eMMC, the old fstab would have worked unmodified. Can't say why you couldn't log in via SSH initially, but in any case this is a minor issue.
  3. Yes, this should be doable. Create a LUKS partition and ext4 fs on the SSD, copy the root fs to it, update /etc/crypttab with the new device UUID, mount, chroot and update the initramfs. I haven't tested this myself though, so other steps might be required. But first you should try the tutorial without modification to make sure it works for your board. If it does, please let me know and I'll add the HC4 to the "supported" list.
  4. Add serial console disk unlocking instructions at step 9.1. Serial console disk unlocking has been added as an option to the automated script as well.
  5. No, I wouldn't assume that. See the comments by @sunzone above regarding the Orange Pi Zero. In their case, the problem may be connected with the fact that the OPi Zero requires 'flash-kernel' to set up the boot loader. I think that boards/images that don't depend on flash-kernel should generally work with this tutorial, but I need more test data to confirm that hypothesis.
  6. Sorry to hear that. I'm afraid I've run out of options, since I don't have an Opi Zero for testing. If you really need root fs encryption, then you might try building Armbian with the CRYPTROOT_ENABLE option mentioned by @DevShankyin the post above.
  7. This is not the kind of error I would expect to see. Are you sure you performed all the steps correctly, didn't omit anything? Is the SD card itself in working order? I'll take a look at the Focal Orange Pi Zero image to see if there's anything there that might be causing this error, but I don't have that board to test on, unfortunately. UPDATE: I looked at your image. Some things you might want to check: 1) Make sure you're editing armbianEnv.txt correctly. After performing the edits, the file should look like this: verbosity=1 bootlogo=false console=display disp_mode=1920x1080p60 overlay_prefix=sun8i-h3 overlays=usbhost2 usbhost3 rootdev=/dev/mapper/rootfs rootfstype=ext4 2) In boot.cmd there are two lines beginning with 'setenv rootdev'. Make sure you're deleting the first one. If that doesn't work, there are other things you might try and see whether you get the same or similar error at bootup: 1) Use the automated script instead of the tutorial. 2) Try the Buster image instead of Focal.
  8. You don't need nand-sata-install, because the tutorial (and script) create the encrypted system directly on the eMMC. This has been tested successfully on the RockPi 4. Would like to hear from users how it works on other boards.
  9. Thanks for pointing that out! As far as overlap goes, I think this tutorial (and the automated script) has a clear use case, as it creates encrypted Armbian systems without building or compiling anything, which is much easier for most users (the automated script can create a fully configured system on your SD card or eMMC in a matter of minutes). Secondly, the tutorial can be a valuable learning experience for those interested in better understanding disk partitioning, loop devices, LUKS encryption, uBoot, the Linux bootup process, basic administrative commands, etc.
  10. This tutorial is now replaced by https://forum.armbian.com/topic/15618-full-root-filesystem encryption on-an-armbian-system-new-replaces-2017-tutorial-on-this-topic/
  11. Full root filesystem encryption on an Armbian system (new, fully rewritten, replaces my earlier tutorial on this topic) MMGen (https://github.com/mmgen) This tutorial provides detailed, step-by-step instructions for setting up full root filesystem encryption on an Armbian system. The disk can be unlocked remotely via SSH or the serial console, permitting unattended bootup. An automated script that performs the same steps, saving you much time and effort, can be found at https://github.com/mmgen/mmgen-geek-tools Note that unlike my earlier tutorial all steps are performed within a running Armbian system. The tutorial is known to work with the following board/image combinations: Orange Pi PC2 Debian Buster mainline / Ubuntu Bionic and Focal legacy RockPi 4 Debian Buster mainline / Ubuntu Bionic and Focal legacy RockPro 64 Ubuntu Focal mainline Odroid HC4 Debian Buster mainline / Ubuntu Focal mainline You may have success with other boards/images too. If so, please post the details below (or open an issue in the mmgen-geek-tools Github repository), and I’ll add your board to the list. Requirements: A SoC with a running, upgradeable and Internet-connected Armbian system A blank Micro-SD card and USB card reader, or, alternatively, a blank eMMC installed on the board The ability to edit text files and do simple administrative tasks on the Linux command line Step 1 - Preliminaries All steps in this tutorial are performed as root user on a running Armbian system (the “host”). The encrypted system (the “target”) will be created on a blank micro-SD card. If your board has an eMMC not currently in use, the system can be created on it instead. Architecture of host and target (e.g. 64-bit or 32-bit ARM) must be the same. For best results, the host and target hardware should also be identical or similar. Building on a host with more memory than the target, for example, may lead to disk unlocking failure on the target. If you’re building the target system for the currently running board and with the currently running image, which is the recommended approach, the two preceding points will be a non-issue. Packages will be installed using APT, so the host machine must be Internet-connected and its clock correctly set. Step 2 - Upgrade your system and install the cryptsetup-bin package # apt update && apt upgrade # apt install cryptsetup-bin Step 3 - Get and unpack the latest Armbian image for your board Create your build directory: # mkdir armbenc-build && cd armbenc-build Download the Armbian image of your choice for your board, place it in this directory and unpack: # xz -dv *.img.xz Step 4 - Create mount directories and set up the loop mount Create the mount directories: # mkdir -p mnt boot root Determine your first free loop device: # losetup -f Associate the image file with the loop device name displayed by the previous command. This will be '/dev/loop0' in most cases, but if your output was different, substitute that for '/dev/loop0' in the following steps. # losetup -P /dev/loop0 *.img Examine the disk image using fdisk on the loop device: # fdisk -l /dev/loop0 The output should look something like this: Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type /dev/loop0p1 32768 3489791 3457024 1.7G 83 Linux Make a note of the start sector (32768 in this case). You’ll need this value in the steps below. Now mount the loop device: # mount /dev/loop0p1 mnt Step 5 - Copy the boot loader to the SD card Insert the blank micro-SD card and card reader into a USB port. Determine the SD card’s device name using 'dmesg' or 'lsblk'. We’ll assume it to be '/dev/sda', since that’s the most likely case. If your device name is different, substitute it for '/dev/sda' in the the following steps. For an eMMC, the device name will probably be '/dev/mmcblk1'. WARNING: if '/dev/sda' refers to some other storage device, running the following commands unchanged will destroy data on that device, so always remember to substitute the correct device name!!! The best way to eliminate this danger is to disconnect all unused storage devices on the board before proceeding further. Copy the image’s boot loader to the SD card, using the Start sector value from Step 4 as the argument for 'count': # dd if=$(echo *.img) of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=32768 Step 6 - Partition the SD card # fdisk /dev/sda At the fdisk prompt, create a new DOS disk label with the 'o' command. Use the 'n' command to create a primary partition of size +200M beginning at the same Start sector as the disk image. Type 'p' to view the partition table, which should now look something like this: Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type /dev/sda1 32768 442367 409600 200M 83 Linux Use 'n' again to create another primary partition beginning one sector after the first partition’s end sector and filling the remainder of the card. Type 'p' once more to view the partition table: Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type /dev/sda1 32768 442367 409600 200M 83 Linux /dev/sda2 442368 30636031 30193664 14.4G 83 Linux Ensure that the first partition’s Start sector matches that of the disk image (32768 in this example) and that the second partition’s Start sector is one greater than the End sector of the first (442368 and 442367, respectively, in this example). If you’ve made a mistake, use 'd' to delete a partition and start again. Once everything looks correct, type 'w' to write the partition table to disk. Step 7 - Copy the system to the SD card The following commands will create a filesystem on the SD card’s boot partition and copy the boot partition data from the image file to it. Don’t forget to substitute the correct device name if necessary. If you’re building the system on an eMMC, the boot partition device is likely to be '/dev/mmcblk1p1' instead of '/dev/sda1'. # mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1 # or '/dev/mmcblk1p1', for an eMMC target # e2label /dev/sda1 CRYPTO_BOOT # mount /dev/sda1 boot # cp -av mnt/boot/* boot # (cd boot; ln -s . boot) Create the encrypted root partition. When prompted for a passphrase, it’s advisable to choose an easy one like 'abc' for now. The passphrase can be changed later with the 'cryptsetup luksChangeKey' command (type 'man cryptsetup' for details) once your encrypted system is up and running. # cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda2 # or '/dev/mmcblk1p2', for an eMMC target Activate the encrypted root partition and create a filesystem on it: # cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda2 rootfs # enter your passphrase from above # mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/rootfs Mount the encrypted root partition and copy the system to it: # mount /dev/mapper/rootfs root # (cd mnt && rsync -a --info=progress2 --exclude=boot * ../root) # sync # be patient, this could take a while # mkdir root/boot # touch root/root/.no_rootfs_resize Unmount the boot partition and image and free the loop device: # umount mnt boot # losetup -d /dev/loop0 Step 8 - Prepare the target system chroot # BOOT_PART=($(lsblk -l -o NAME,LABEL | grep CRYPTO_BOOT)) # ROOT_PART=${BOOT_PART%1}2 # ROOT_UUID="$(lsblk --nodeps --noheadings --output=UUID /dev/$ROOT_PART)" # BOOT_UUID="$(lsblk --noheadings --output=UUID /dev/$BOOT_PART)" # cd root # mount /dev/$BOOT_PART boot # mount -o rbind /dev dev # mount -t proc proc proc # mount -t sysfs sys sys Copy '/etc/resolv.conf' and '/etc/hosts' so you’ll have a working Internet connection within the chroot: # cat /etc/resolv.conf > etc/resolv.conf # cat /etc/hosts > etc/hosts If you’re using non-default APT repositories, you may need to copy their configuration files as well so that 'apt update' and 'apt install' will use them inside the chroot. Note that you can only do this if the host and target systems have the same distro/version. If that’s not the case, you’ll have to edit the target files by hand. # cat /etc/apt/sources.list > etc/apt/sources.list # cat /etc/apt/sources.list.d/armbian.list > etc/apt/sources.list.d/armbian.list If you’re using an apt proxy, then copy its configuration file too: # cp /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/*proxy etc/apt/apt.conf.d/ Step 9 - Edit or create required configuration files in the target system Perform the editing steps below using a text editor of your choice: Edit 'boot/armbianEnv.txt' so that the 'rootdev', 'console' and 'bootlogo' lines read as follows. If you’ll be unlocking the disk via the serial console, then use 'console=serial' instead of 'console=display'. Note that enabling the serial console will make it impossible to unlock the disk from the keyboard and monitor, though unlocking via SSH will still work: rootdev=/dev/mapper/rootfs console=display bootlogo=false Edit 'etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf'. If your board will have a statically configured IP, add the following line to the end of the file, substituting the correct IP in place of 192.168.0.88: IP=192.168.0.88:::255.255.255.0::eth0:off If the board will be configured via DHCP, then edit the DEVICE line as follows: DEVICE=eth0 If host and target systems are both Debian buster, you may wish add some key modules to the initramfs to avoid a blank display at bootup time. The easiest way to do this is to add all currently loaded modules as follows: # lsmod | cut -d ' ' -f1 | tail -n+2 > etc/initramfs-tools/modules Retrieve the SSH public key from the remote unlocking host and copy it to the target: # mkdir -p etc/dropbear-initramfs # rsync yourusername@remote_machine:.ssh/id_*.pub etc/dropbear-initramfs/authorized_keys If you want to unlock the disk from more than one host, then edit the authorized_keys file by hand, adding the required additional keys. Create 'etc/crypttab': # echo "rootfs UUID=$ROOT_UUID none initramfs,luks" > etc/crypttab Create 'etc/fstab': # echo '/dev/mapper/rootfs / ext4 defaults,noatime,nodiratime,commit=600,errors=remount-ro 0 1' > etc/fstab # echo "UUID=$BOOT_UUID /boot ext4 defaults,noatime,nodiratime,commit=600,errors=remount-ro 0 2" >> etc/fstab # echo 'tmpfs /tmp tmpfs defaults,nosuid 0 0' >> etc/fstab Create the dropbear configuration file: # echo 'DROPBEAR_OPTIONS="-p 2222"' > etc/dropbear-initramfs/config # echo 'DROPBEAR=y' >> etc/dropbear-initramfs/config If the target is Ubuntu bionic, then a deprecated environment variable must be set as follows: # echo 'export CRYPTSETUP=y' > etc/initramfs-tools/conf.d/cryptsetup Set up automatic disk unlock prompt. Performing this optional step will cause the disk password prompt to appear automatically when you log in remotely via SSH to unlock the disk. Using your text editor, create the file 'etc/initramfs-tools/hooks/cryptroot-unlock.sh' with the following contents: #!/bin/sh if [ "$1" = 'prereqs' ]; then echo 'dropbear-initramfs'; exit 0; fi . /usr/share/initramfs-tools/hook-functions source='/tmp/cryptroot-unlock-profile' root_home=$(echo $DESTDIR/root-*) root_home=${root_home#$DESTDIR} echo 'if [ "$SSH_CLIENT" ]; then /usr/bin/cryptroot-unlock; fi' > $source copy_file ssh_login_profile $source $root_home/.profile exit 0 Save the file and execute the command: chmod 755 'etc/initramfs-tools/hooks/cryptroot-unlock.sh' Step 10 - Chroot into the target system, install packages and configure Now chroot into the encrypted system. All remaining steps will be performed inside the chroot: # chroot . Install the cryptsetup package and the dropbear SSH server: # apt update # echo 'force-confdef' > /root/.dpkg.cfg # apt --yes install cryptsetup-initramfs dropbear-initramfs # for a buster or focal image # apt --yes install cryptsetup dropbear-initramfs # for a bionic image # rm /root/.dpkg.cfg Make sure everything was included in the initramfs (all three commands should produce output): # lsinitramfs /boot/initrd.img* | grep 'usr.*cryptsetup' # lsinitramfs /boot/initrd.img* | grep dropbear # lsinitramfs /boot/initrd.img* | grep authorized_keys Your work is finished! Exit the chroot and shut down the board: # exit # halt -p Insert your freshly written SD card into the board’s main SD slot (or, if the target is an eMMC, just remove the SD card from that slot) and reboot. Unlock the disk by executing the following command on your remote unlocking machine, substituting the correct IP address if necessary: $ ssh -p 2222 root@192.168.0.88 If you performed step 9.10 above, the disk password prompt should appear automatically after login. If not, you must enter the command 'cryptroot-unlock'. You may also unlock the disk from the target board’s console if you wish. Note, however, that certain disk images (RockPi 4 buster mainline, for example) might give you a blank display at startup, so you’ll have to enter your disk password “blindly”. This bug will hopefully be fixed in the future. If all went well, your root-filesystem encrypted Armbian system is now up and running!
  12. Fixed boot sector size, luksFormat command. Removed outdated image downloading and unpacking instructions. Tested on SD and eMMC; Orange Pi PC2 and RockPi 4; Bionic legacy, Focal legacy and Buster mainline images. Instead of this tutorial, users are now encouraged to use my automated script, which does things in a better, more up-to-date way: git clone https://github.com/mmgen/mmgen-geek-tools
  13. Everything works as usual. If you're worried about forgetting the key, start out with a simple disk password like 'abc'. The password is all you need. Use case: if your machine ever falls into the wrong hands, any sensitive information on your disk is inaccessible to the attacker (but then you'll need a better password than 'abc').
  14. Re-tested tutorial with current server image. Minor updates and revisions.
  15. MMGen

    Orange Pi Win

    Thanks! It's sort of like the mix-up with USB slots on computers. Some are upside-down, others right side up. And it's a constant source of annoyance. Hardware manufacturers are horrible when it comes to observing standards.
  16. MMGen

    Orange Pi Win

    So power green, status red is OK? This is the standard for Armbian? Just wanted to clarify that.
  17. MMGen

    Orange Pi Win

    Can confirm: ORANGE_PI-PC2-V1_2_schematic.pdf erroneously has STATUS-LED as PA15 when it's really PA20. But this is the RED led (next to the green one, which is always on). I think power led and status led might be reversed then on the PC2. On RPi/Raspbian the power led is red and status is green.
  18. Assuming all the steps of the tutorial completed without error, this is probably an authorization problem. Make sure you installed the correct SSH public key or keys as described and are unlocking from the correct remote machine. Also make sure dropbear is running. You should see a 'dropbear started' message at boot up if you have a monitor connected.
  19. Revised and re-tested tutorial with current Armbian OPi PC2 images, removed unneeded kernel compilation section.
  20. Edit: dropped the ip argument from the kernel command line because it's not necessary.