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  1. Hallo, this Mini-Howto describes how to change the behavior of the onboard LEDs during booting. There are many ways to do that. Two ways are shown here, a SysV style using /etc/rc.local and a systemd style using a configuration file in /etc/tmpfiles.d/. The systemd file is earlier interpreted than rc.local. It is tested on Banana Pi M1*/M2/R1 with Debian jessie next (5.0x, 4.4.x). * partly Which LEDs could be accessed? root@bananapim2:~# ls -1 /sys/class/leds/ bpi-m2:blue:usr bpi-m2:green:usr bpi-m2:red:usr * The Banana Pi M1 lists the blue LED but it couldn't be set via /etc/tmpfiles.d/ or /etc/rc.local. Which behaviors are possible? root@bananapim2:~# cat /sys/class/leds/bpi-m2\:green\:usr/trigger none rc-feedback kbd-scrollock kbd-numlock kbd-capslock kbd-kanalock kbd-shiftlock kbd-altgrlock kbd-ctrllock kbd-altlock kbd-shiftllock kbd-shiftrlock kbd-ctrlllock kbd-ctrlrlock usb-gadget usb-host [mmc0] heartbeat cpu0 cpu1 cpu2 cpu3 default-on mmc1 rfkill0 Edit /etc/rc.local to set the behavior of the onboard LEDs root@bananapim2:~# cat /etc/rc.local #!/bin/sh -e echo "default-on" > /sys/class/leds/bpi-m2\:red\:usr/trigger echo "mmc0" > /sys/class/leds/bpi-m2\:green\:usr/trigger echo "heartbeat" > /sys/class/leds/bpi-m2\:blue\:usr/trigger exit 0 or edit /etc/tmpfiles.d/leds.conf. root@bananapim2:~# cat /etc/tmpfiles.d/leds.conf w /sys/class/leds/bpi-m2:red:usr/trigger - - - - default-on w /sys/class/leds/bpi-m2:green:usr/trigger - - - - mmc0 w /sys/class/leds/bpi-m2:blue:usr/trigger - - - - heartbeat /etc/rc.local can be executed on the console, /etc/tmpfiles.d/leds.conf needs a reboot. A third way may be to create systemd rules. But it doesn't work for me. root@bananapim2:~# udevadm info -a -p /sys/class/leds/bpi-m2\:red\:usr [snip] looking at device '/devices/platform/leds/leds/bpi-m2:red:usr': KERNEL=="bpi-m2:red:usr" SUBSYSTEM=="leds" DRIVER=="" ATTR{brightness}=="255" ATTR{max_brightness}=="255" ATTR{trigger}=="none rc-feedback kbd-scrollock kbd-numlock kbd-capslock kbd-kanalock kbd-shiftlock kbd-altgrlock kbd-ctrllock kbd-altlock kbd-shiftllock kbd-shiftrlock kbd-ctrlllock kbd-ctrlrlock usb-gadget usb-host mmc0 heartbeat cpu0 cpu1 cpu2 cpu3 [default-on] mmc1 rfkill0 " [snip] root@bananapim2:~#nano /etc/udev/rules.d/10-leds.rules For setting the LEDs via dts files, have a look at this discussion: Regards, Steve
  2. What shall moderators do on our forum. Basics: - job should be invisible - spam control and clean up (rare) - approve posts from new users (daily) - Warning: editing topic tittle change it's URL - move topic to appropriate forum (rare) (tick "Leave a link to the new location" - it deletes auto in 30 days) recognise and tag tutorials & researches. Move them into "Research Guides & Tutorials" - merge, pin and lock topics (rare, with caution) - cut and move posts to new topics (rare, with caution) Intermediate: - Warn User for: spamming, inappropriate language, signature violation, abusive behaviour, topic bumping. Stop being a moderator: - when you don't want - on multiple complains To study and add more:
  3. Here is a short instruction how to enable S/PDIF digital audio output on NanoPI M1 board running Debian Jessie with legacy kernel. This instruction can be applied to other H3 based boards but connect S/PDIF output hardware to GPIOA17 can be tricky (soldering miniature camera connector pins). Operations can be done over serial console or ssh. Login as root Get a .fex file and open it in editor: bin2fex /boot/script.bin /tmp/script.fex nano /tmp/script.fex Search a csi0 (camera) section an disable it: [csi0] vip_used = 0 Search a S/PDIF section and enable it: [spdif0] spdif_used = 1 Get the name of the file pointed by the /boot/script.bin link and convert modified .fex to it: ls -la /boot/script.bin ----- /boot/script.bin -> bin/nanopim1.bin fex2bin /tmp/script.fex /boot/bin/nanopim1.bin Open /etc/modules to instruct Jessie to load S/PDIF modules at boot: nano /etc/modules Add module names near the end of file: sunxi_spdif sunxi_spdma sndspdif sunxi_sndspdif Reboot system: sync reboot After reboot login as root again Get the list of ALSA devices available: aplay -l **** List of PLAYBACK Hardware Devices **** card 0: audiocodec [audiocodec], device 0: SUNXI-CODEC sndcodec-0 [] Subdevices: 1/1 Subdevice #0: subdevice #0 card 1: sndhdmi [sndhdmi], device 0: SUNXI-HDMIAUDIO sndhdmi-0 [] Subdevices: 1/1 Subdevice #0: subdevice #0 card 2: sndspdif [sndspdif], device 0: SUNXI-SPDIF sndspdif-0 [] Subdevices: 0/1 Subdevice #0: subdevice #0 To connect board S/PDIF output to my favorite DAC i use an optical S/PDIF module soldered out from dead DVD player: There are 3 wires connected to board 40-pin connector: GND (pin 6), VDD_5V (pin 2) and SPDIF-OUT/GPIOA17 (pin 26) Module pinout can be found in datasheet,t).pdf Modules come in 2 types: 6-MBit (up to 24 bit / 96KHz) and 15-MBit (up to 24 bit / 192KHz). Most likely from DVD or SAT receiver You get the 6-MBit module. 15-MBit modules can be purchased at Digikey, etc. When listening to music, I faced with spontaneous fadings. This is due to some problem of the CPU speed switching. To this do not happen, I banned the clock frequency of 240 MHz in the /etc/default/cpufrequtils: MIN_SPEED=480000
  4. Questions and answers about powering the Orange Pi Zero using the "Power over Ethernet" option. The aim is to answer community questions about Power Over Ethernet options (both official 802.3af/at and unofficial "PoE" solutions) and to improve the wiki page with these answers: Helpful links: Examples of standards-compliant PoE hardware: 802.3af switch: 100MBit 802.3af to 5V power supply (10W max): Gigabit 802.3af to 12/9/5V power supply (12W max): Examples of non-standards-compliant PoE hardware: 8 port "PoE" injector (you pick the input voltage): "PoE" splitter: (Zero soldering option!) Solder to pads on Orange Pi Zero and use a DC-DC step down converter to get 5V: Q&A: 1. The Orange Pi Zero says it supports "PoE" how is this implemented? The Ethernet port on the Orange Pi Zero exposes pins 4/5 and 7/8 via pads on the bottom of the board. Photo here. Note that this is 802.3af mode B, which is not fully standards compliant (802.3af/at specifies mode A and mode B, it is not allowed to have a device which only accepts one mode). Out of the box, there is NO way to power the board from Ethernet, either with an 802.3af/at switch or with passive "PoE" injectors. More effort is needed. 2. What are the options to power the Orange Pi with "PoE" ? Option 1: Solder 0 Ohm resistors across the pads and use a PoE injector with 5V. Pro: + No additional power supply needed Con: - 5V cannot travel long distances without voltage sag. You can put in a higher voltage (e.g. 7V DC) but then all the cables would need to be the same length and you risk destroying the Orange Pi if the voltage spikes. Option 2: Solder a step-down converter and use a PoE injector with a higher voltage (e.g. 24V). Pro: + 24V will travel much farther than 5V in a CAT5/6 cable. Cons: - You will need to purchase and solder an additional voltage regulator to take the input voltage and drop it down to 5V. Option 3: Buy/use a PoE switch implementing 802.3af/at. Pro: + Standards compliant + 802.3af/at operate at ~48V, which can power devices up to 100m away from the switch + Plugging in a non-PoE device will not result in fireworks + Cable faults will not result in short circuits because the switch will shut down the port Con: - Power electronics to turn 48V into 5V may consume more power than the Orange Pi itself - More expensive
  5. Requirements Fresh enough nighly or manually built image Latest kernel and dtb packages (26.03.2017 or newer) Limitations As stated in other PWM related threads, hardware PWM output is supported only on pin PA5 which is also UART0 ("debug" serial console) RX pin, so enabling PWM will disable this console. Activation Add "pwm" to "overlays" line in /boot/armbianEnv.txt Example: overlays=pwm Reboot is required to apply the changes Armbian overlays documentation: PWM sysfs interface Official documentation: Please note that this ABI is considered "testing" so it may change in the future. Sysfs interface example # activate the PWM. On H3 only 1 PWM is supported, so exporting PWM 0 echo 0 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip0/export # set period to 10ms echo 10000000 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip0/pwm0/period # set normal polarity. needs to be reset explicitly. Bug? echo "inversed" > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip0/pwm0/polarity echo "normal" > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip0/pwm0/polarity # enable the PWM echo 1 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip0/pwm0/enable # set duty cycle to 1ms echo 1000000 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip0/pwm0/duty_cycle Result: # set duty cycle to 2ms echo 2000000 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip0/pwm0/duty_cycle Result: # set duty cycle to 1us, period to 2us echo 1000 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip0/pwm0/duty_cycle echo 2000 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip0/pwm0/period Result: Please note that some settings needs to be changed in a correct sequence, i.e. you can't set duty cycle higher than period root@orangepiplus2e:~# echo 1000 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip0/pwm0/duty_cycle root@orangepiplus2e:~# echo 500 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip0/pwm0/period -bash: echo: write error: Invalid argument root@orangepiplus2e:~#
  6. Is not important, and is a topic related to desktop environment and I know that armbian is more a server OS than a dektop replacement ... but I'm stuck trying to have all the environment in my mother language, Spanish. I change locale in root user and in the additionally created desktop user, I use dpkg-reconfigure locales locales and also export LANGUAGE=es_ES.UTF-8 but after reboot is again in English. And also when I update and upgrade the system I can see Translation-en logs but never a Translation-es. Is there any chance to do a better localization of the Desktop Environment? Thanks.